Evaluation of the Relationship between HRM Practices, Employee Retention and Internal and External Factors: A literature Review
Dr. Akim Ajieth Buny
College of Management Sciences, Dr. John Garang University, Bor, South Sudan
The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between HRM practices, employee retention and internal and external factors. This objective led to four components within the scope of the literature review. The first track dealt with definitions and reviews of the key concepts related to HRM practices and employee retention. The second track of the literature review aimed to ground the study in the wide body of knowledge by examining HRM policies and practices for improving staff retention. The third track of the literature review considered the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings by identifying internal factors influencing HRM practices and employee retention. The fourth and final track of the literature review looked into recent empirical studies and explored the roles and impacts of external factors on HRM practices and employee retention. Findings from the study showed that although environmental factors influence HRM practices and ultimately employee retention, HRM practices contribute to establishing social climates which, in turn enhance ambidextrous learning and ultimately organizational performance. One observation that may be made on this study is that the effect of HRM practices on ambidexterity is not directly causal, but indirect. It is likely that the social climates created by HRM practices also enhance a number of other skills likewise favorable to organizational performance. HRM practices are therefore contributory, but not determinative, of the likelihood of skills development, including ambidexterity.